Georges Rouault (Paris,1871-1902) ‘Petite magicienne, Cirque de l’arc-en-ciel’ (young magician, rainbow circus), 1948-49.
Rouault trained as a stained-glass artist, hence his habit of outlining objects and characters in thick black. It transforms the very real characters into symbols.
From the page:”The dark outlines give structure to the form and express the density of the mass and the contours, while being expressive and ornamental. They…also performs the functions of highlighting the joints of the subjects and of drawing the body in a powerfully intense and rhythmic design… in a hieratic style.”